22 January 2005

Human Papillomavirus: Primary Cause of Cervical Cancer

Human papillomavirus and cancer: the epidemiological evidence.
Munoz N., J Clin Virol. 2000 Oct;19(1-2):1-5

OBJECTIVE: Summary of the studies carried out by the IARC on HPV and cervical cancer is presented.

RESULTS: the first one was the international prevalence survey of HPV types in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) conducted in up to 22 countries. Overall, 99.7% of 1000 cases with histologically confirmed ICC were also shown to be HPV DNA positive using the GP5+/GP6+ or E7 primers, indicating that HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The most prevalent HPV types were HPV 16 (53%), HPV 18 (15%), HPV 45 (9%), HPV 31 (6%) and HPV 33 (3%). HPV 16 was the most common type in all geographical regions, followed by HPV 18 that was particularly, common in South-East Asia. The second set of studies included case-control studies carried out in 13 countries. They included about 2000 cases and 2000 controls. Positivity, for any HPV DNA yielded a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 70. The association was equally strong for both squamous cell (OR=74) and adenocarcinoma (OR=50) and for HPV 16 and 18 as well as for the less common HPV types. Our results indicate that in addition to HPV 16 and 18, HPV 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 58 and 59 now can be considered as carcinogenic. The third group of studies is aimed to determine the HPV DNA prevalence in random, age-stratified (by 5 years, 15-19 to 65+) subsamples (1100 women) of the general population. Two age-peaks (<25 and >59 years), have been found in some countries (Costa-Rica, Mexico, Colombia) but not in all (Argentina). Whether the second peak is due to viral reactivation, variations in screening or represents a birth-cohort effect remains to be determined. The distribution of the most prevalent HPV types in the general population (HPV 16, 18, 45, 31, 58, 33, 35) resembles that for cervical cancer cases.

CONCLUSIONS: our studies provide the most solid epidemiological evidence, to conclude that HPV is not only the central cause of cervical cancer worldwide but also a necessary cause.

19 January 2005

Living Forever: When Will We Achieve Escape Velocity?

Do You Want to Live Forever?
Sherwin Nuland, MIT Technology Review, Febuary 2005

Wandering through the quadrangles and medieval bastions of learning at the University of Cambridge one overcast Sunday afternoon a few months ago, I found myself ruminating on how this venerable place had been a crucible for the scientific revolution that changed humankind’s perceptions of itself and of the world. The notion of Cambridge as a source of grand transformative concepts was very much on my mind that day, because I had traveled to England to meet a contemporary Cantabrigian who aspires to a historical role similar to those enjoyed by Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, and William Harvey. Aubrey David Nicholas Jasper de Grey is convinced that he has formulated the theoretical means by which human beings might live thousands of years—indefinitely, in fact.

Perhaps theoretical is too small a word. De Grey has mapped out his proposed course in such detail that he believes it may be possible for his objective to be achieved within as short a period as 25 years, in time for many readers of Technology Review to avail themselves of its formulations—and, not incidentally, in time for his 41-year-old self as well. Like Bacon, de Grey has never stationed himself at a laboratory bench to attempt a ­single hands-on experiment, at least not in human biology. He is without qualifications for that, and makes no pretensions to being anything other than what he is, a computer scientist who has taught himself natural science. Aubrey de Grey is a man of ideas, and he has set himself toward the goal of transforming the basis of what it means to be human.

For reasons that his memory cannot now retrieve, de Grey has been convinced since childhood that aging is, in his words, “something we need to fix.” Having become interested in biology after marrying a geneticist in 1991, he began poring over texts, and autodidacted until he had mastered the subject. The more he learned, the more he became convinced that the postponement of death was a problem that could very well have real solutions and that he might be just the person to find them. As he reviewed the possible reasons why so little progress had been made in spite of the remarkable molecular and cellular discoveries of recent decades, he came to the conclusion that the problem might be far less difficult to solve than some thought; it seemed to him related to a factor too often brushed under the table when the motivations of scientists are discussed, namely the small likelihood of achieving promising results within the ­period required for academic advancement—careerism, in a word. As he puts it, “High-risk fields are not the most conducive to getting promoted quickly.

17 January 2005

Pollen Protection: Better Technology for Better Living

Google Groups Electronic Medicine
Browse Archives at groups-beta.google.com

I received a query about pollen frequencies. Below is an item from 9 May 2002. I've moved it to the top of the page so those who subscribe to my Google group will find it searchable there.

This morning at 6am the sun was shining, the pollen count was high, and the wind was gusty. A perfect morning for a pollen protection experiment. Upon awakening, I detected a couple of pollen frequencies that I did not pick up earlier this week. I treated for 486563, 485653, 483644, 488777, 498853, 488777, 477557, 463756, 496137, 468657. This completely cleared my head and chest. I set my BioPhoton Integrator to broadcast the FSCAN frequencies, strapped on my heart monitor, and headed out the door for a cross country run up a couple of steep hills and into the forest. Taking along Don Croft's Terminator zapper for extra protection, I detected no allergy symptoms throughout the run. No slowing down going up hills. Best run I have had for a while. I picked up samples of oak, maple, and birch because the Allergy Alert said they were most prevelant. Testing them on return, I got the frequencies 466676 (oak), 466764 (maple), 463878 (birch) and added them to my FSCAN list, along with 463555 which I picked up in my sinuses on return. I treated myself for a minute or two at each of these frequencies to make sure my system was clear. Off to Starbucks, where people were talking about how high the pollen count was and how bad it was going to be that day. Mission accomplished. No allergic response for the rest of the day.

The leaves were fully out this morning and it is the aroma emanating from the leaves that causes the problem. Even touching the leaves to test them caused me some discomfort. While the early pollens appear to be in the 488KHZ range, the leaves are in the 463KHZ range. There are a lot of different frequencies out there from different trees at different stages and it is important to identify the ones that you are most exposed to. I can envision a device like the shoplifting detector in a store that emits a magnetic field cycling through the pollen frequencies and keeping people who come in and out of the store free from allergens.

13 January 2005

Borna Virus: Ignorance in Modern Medicine

One of my friends called me last night. He had checked himself into the hospital because of his bipolar disease. He told the physicians he had the Borna virus and it was flaring up. We had used frequency transmission to deal with it on multiple occasions. The hospital physicians asked, "What's the Borna virus?" They then proceeded to give him too much Lithium resulting in a two week hospital stay.

If these physicians consulted PubMed they would have found over 600 papers in the medical journals on the Borna virus. It is associated with a wide variety of mental illness, particularly bipolar disease and depression.

Why didn't the physicians consult his medical records at his primary physician's office? They would have found out that he had tested positive for the Borna virus and the primary physician was handling it, including the appropriate does of lithium. This failure to review available medical information on a patient will be viewed as malpractice in the not too distant future. There is a national initiative to enable sharing of this critical patient care information. While we are waiting for computer systems to do it automatically, how about using an old fashion phone call?

The physicians should have immediately queried the internet about the patient's problem. Every bipolar person I have ever tested has it, and so do most members of the family. The virus is very widespread and causes all kinds of problems in addition to bipolar disease.

They wanted to know how he caught it. They could have done a Google search on "origin of the Borna virus." They would have found it under "Great Moments in Science". We used to teach great moments in science in medical schools. I wonder what they are teaching students these days?

The effects of Borna virus were first noticed in Saxony in Germany in 1766 in horses - first they got sad, and then hyperactive, and then most of them died. But the virus got its name about a century ago, when it killed some 2,000 cavalry horses in the town of Borna in Germany. But only recently, in the 1990s, have we found a link between this virus and depression. Depression is a disorder of your mood or emotions. It affects some 5% of the population at any given time. There's actually a bunch of diseases that go under the single name of "depression", and they tend to come and go during your life. They do more than just make you a little bit unhappy. They can cause severe disability, greater than is caused by heart disease, diabetes or even arthritis. In fact, it's thought that 70% of suicides happen in people suffering from depression. But what's the evidence that this strange new virus called Borna virus can cause depression?

Well, much of this research has been done by two virologists, Hanns Ludwig from the Free University of Berlin, and Liv Bode from the Robert Koch Institute (also in Berlin). In 1994, they found that clinically depressed people were more likely to have some of the proteins associated with Borna virus in their blood. The next year, they found traces of the actual RNA of the Borna virus as well. In 1996, these virologists took some Borna virus from clinically depressed patients, and when they injected this Borna virus into rabbits, the rabbits became apathetic, sluggish, withdrawn and stopped their normal grooming - in other words, the rabbits started suffering depression. And in January 1997, they found that if they used the anti-virus drug amantadine in depressed patients, as the virus disappeared from the blood stream, so did the symptoms of depression.

When I was teaching medical students at the University of Colorado Medical School from 1875-1983, we did not go home with a question like this unanswered. And we had to do real work in the medical library to get the answer. Today it takes three minutes on the internet.

The current issue of Health Affairs discusses the appalling 17 year gap between evidence based findings in the leading medical journals and information that is resident in the typical physicians head:

Health Affairs, Vol 24, Issue 1, 151-162
Copyright © 2005 by Project HOPE
DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.24.1.151

Implementing Evidence

Evidence-Based Decision Making: Global Evidence, Local Decisions

Carolyn M. Clancy and Kelly Cronin

Despite the notable progress to date, evidence-based decision making has been largely overshadowed by the persistence of poor-quality care in the United States. Elizabeth McGlynn's landmark report on U.S. health care quality, AHRQ's National Healthcare Quality Report, and a recent cross-national report on quality indicators raise important questions about the gap between the promise of evidence-based health care and its current level of adoption. All stakeholders in the health care system presumably find the current seventeen-year delay from evidence to practice unacceptable. This translation chasm is even more intolerable, given the increased array of choices resulting from large public and private investments in biomedical science. Although many factors, including local professional norms and patients' values and preferences, contribute to deviations from evidence-based care, a fundamental question remains: Why does the gap persist?

Limited resources. Investments in biomedical science have resulted in a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic options for clinicians and patients. The extant infrastructure for conducting systematic reviews--including AHRQ's Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs), the worldwide Cochrane Collaboration, and independent private-sector organizations--has led to much progress in developing methods and conceptual enhancements for systematic reviews. Nevertheless, the field is not advancing as rapidly as it could because of limited resources.

Knowledge chasm. Moreover, by definition, systematic reviews rely on available studies. Since the link between decisionmakers' needs and establishment of clinical research priorities is somewhat circuitous, the net result is that decision-makers have few resources for learning quickly which patients are likely to benefit from new options and which patients will experience marginal benefits or outright harm. Payers and consumers confront the same knowledge chasm and lack good information for coverage decisions, cost sharing, and treatment choices.

Need for a systems approach. We now know that knowledge about best practice is necessary but not sufficient to effect change in practice and policy. Impatient purchasers are testing innovations to identify incentives and programs that reward evidence-based ("best") practice, but they have a limited knowledge base on which to derive or evaluate new approaches. Although the Institute of Medicine's reports on medical errors and quality have reinforced the importance of a systems approach to improvement, major support for research to inform such an approach has only recently become available.

Poor accessibility. Finally, evidence is infrequently available in a form that can be acted upon at the time decisions must be made. From clinical encounters to policy decisions, there are few clear pathways between the evidence that is available through peer-reviewed literature reviews and the point of decision making. Clinicians searching for information all too often find that existing knowledge is not accessible in real time and may not necessarily map to the issue at hand. Also, although consumers are increasingly active in seeking information about health and specific conditions, most of this activity is peripheral to care delivery. Personalized decision making, including provider and treatment selection as well as self-management, looms on the horizon. Development and adoption of personal health records could support individual choice based on current information.

11 January 2005

Mediterranean Diet: More Reasons Why It Can Save Your Life

Olive oil an aid in breast cancer fight: study
FairfaxDigital, January 11, 2005

Olive oil can help fight breast cancer, researchers said in a study out yesterday.

"Our findings underpin epidemiological studies that show that the Mediterranean diet has significant protective effects against cancer, heart disease and ageing," said the study's lead author, Javier Menendez, of Northwestern University's Feinberg medical school in Chicago.

Researchers showed in a series of laboratory experiments on breast cancer cells that oleic acid, found in olive oil, dramatically cuts the levels of a cancer-promoting gene called Her-2/neu (also known as erb B-2), Menendez said.

High levels of the gene occur in over a fifth of breast cancer patients and are associated with highly aggressive tumours that have a poor prognosis, according to findings reported in the January 10 Annals of Oncology.

Oleic acid suppressed the gene, and other tests showed that it boosted an antibody treatment trastuzumab (Herceptin), which targets the gene and has helped to prolong the lives of many breast cancer patients, the researchers said.

Unusual Side Effects of Electronic Medicine

DNA image from Columbia University

As a trained scientist and engineer, I focus on effects which can be repeatedly produced in the laboratory. In particular, I detect specific pathogens, target them with specific frequency sets, and repeatedly eliminate them virtually 100% of the time using hundreds of research participants. In so far as is possible, I independently verify effects through objective means. A graph of frequency peaks from a DIRP scan with an FSCAN is one of the most useful cross checks. However, anyone who has been an experimental scientist knows there are clever ways to do objective checks in many dimensions on an experiment.

At the same time, there are many effects that are often experienced by people I work with that are not repeatable in an exact manner because they depend on the unique state of that individual and their frame of mind at the time. The effects are worth mentioning because they are becoming increasingly common and some of them are very powerful in a psychological and spiritual dimension as well as the physical.

In my view, they all relate to the inherent link between DNA structures that is independent of distance. I often tell my clients that a high resolution photo with the latest digital cameras is more useful to me than a DNA sample such as blood, hair, or saliva. In fact, to me it works like a DNA sample. Scanning of the photo with the Cameron Aurameter works as well as scanning them in person. The experiments below point to some of the characteristics of DNA that can help point the way to an understanding of this phenomenon.

Self Healing DNA Discoveries

Below are three astonishing experiments with DNA whichproves that DNA can heal itself according to the "feelings" of the individual as reported recently by Gregg Braden.

In his recent program entitled Healing Hearts/Healing Nations: The Science of Peace and the Power of Prayer, Gregg Braden discussed how in the past we lost huge amounts of information from ancient spiritual traditions (when the library at Alexandriaburned we lost at least 532,000 documents), and that there may be information in those traditions which could help us understand some of the mysteries of science. To this end he reported on three very interesting experiments. Gregg Braden started off as a scientist and engineer, before he began pursuing these larger questions.


The first experiment he reported was done by Dr.Vladimir Poponin, a quantumbiologist. In this experiment, first a container was emptied (ie a vacuum was created within it), and then the only thing left in it were photons (particles of light).

They measured the distribution (ie the location) of the photons and found they were completely random inside the container.This was the expected result. Then some DNA was placed inside the container and the distribution (location) of the photons was remeasured. This time the photons were LINED UP in an ORDERED way and aligned with the DNA. In otherwords the physical DNA had an effect on the non-physical photons.

After that, the DNA was removed from the container, and the distribution of the photons was remeasured again. The photons REMAINED ORDERED and lined up where the DNA had been. What are the light particles connected to?

Gregg Braden says we are forced to accept the possibility that some NEW field of energy, a web of energy, is there and the DNA is communicating with the photons through this energy.


These were experiments done by the military. Leukocytes (white blood cells) were collected for DNA from donors and placed into chambers so they could be measure electrical changes. In this experiment, the donor was placed in one room and subjected to "emotional stimulation" consisting of videoclips, which generated different emotions in the donor. The DNA was placed in a different room in the same building. Both the donor and his DNA were monitored and as the donor exhibited emotional peaks or valleys (measured by electricalresponses), the DNA exhibited the IDENTICAL RESPONSES AT THE EXACT SAME TIME. There was no lag time, no transmission time. The DNA peaks and valleys EXACTLY MATCHED the peaks and valleys of the donor in time.

The military wanted to see how far away they could separate the donor from his DNA and still get this effect. They stopped testing after they separated the DNA and the donor by 50 miles and STILL had the SAME result. No lag time; notransmission time. The DNA and the donor had the same identical responses in time. What can this mean?

Gregg Braden says it means that living cells communicate through a previously unrecognized form of energy. Thisenergy is not affected by time and distance. This is a non-local form of energy, an energy that already exists everywhere, all the time.


The third experiment was done by the Institute of Heart Math and the paper that was written about this was titled: Local and Non local Effects of Coherent Heart Frequencies on Conformational Changes of DNA. (Disregard the title! The info is incredible.)

This is the experiment that relates directly to the anthrax situation. In this experiment, some human placenta DNA (the most pristine form of DNA) was placed in a container from which they could measure changes in the DNA. Twenty-eight vials of DNA were given (one each) to 28 trained researchers. Each researcher had been trained how to generate and FEEL feelings, and they each had strong emotions.

What was discovered was that the DNA CHANGED ITSSHAPE according to the feelings of the researchers: 1. Whenthe researchers FELT gratitude, love and appreciation, the DNA responded by RELAXING and the strands unwound. The length of the DNA became longer. 2. When theresearchers FELT anger, fear, frustration, or stress, the DNA responded by TIGHTENING UP. It became shorter and SWITCHED OFF many of our DNA codes! If you've everfelt "shut down" by negative emotions, now you know why your body was equally shut down too. The shut down of the DNA codes was reversed and the codes were switched backon again when feelings of love, joy, gratitude and appreciation were felt by the researchers.

This experiment was later followed up by testing HIV positive patients. They discovered that feelings of love, gratitude and appreciation created 300,000 TIMES the RESISTANCE theyhad without those feelings. So here's the answer to what can help you stay well, no matter what dreadful virus or bacteria may be floating around. Stay in feelings of joy, love, gratitude and appreciation!

These emotional changes went beyond the effects of electro-magnetics. Individuals trained in deep love were able to change the shape of their DNA. Gregg Braden says this illustrates anew recognized form of energy that connects all of creation.

This energy appears to be a TIGHTLY WOVEN WEB that connects all matter. Essentially we're able to influence this web of creation through our VIBRATION.

10 January 2005

Cut your Risk of Death by 25%!

Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts1,2,3

Paul Knekt, John Ritz, Mark A Pereira, Eilis J O'Reilly, Katarina Augustsson, Gary E Fraser, Uri Goldbourt, Berit L Heitmann, Göran Hallmans, Simin Liu, Pirjo Pietinen, Donna Spiegelman, June Stevens, Jarmo Virtamo, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm and Alberto Ascherio

1 From the National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (PK, PP, and JV); the Departments of Biostatistics (JR and DS), Nutrition (EJO, WCW, EBR, and AA), and Epidemiology (SL, DS, WCW, EBR, and AA), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston; the Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, Boston (WCW); the Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (WCW); the Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (MAP); the Department of Medicine, Children’s Hospital, and the Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston (MAP); the Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (KA); the Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (SL); the Center for Health Research, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA (GEF); the Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Henry N Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (UG); the Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden (GH); the Research Unit for Dietary Studies at the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen (BLH); the Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup, Denmark (BLH); the Glostrup University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark (BLH); and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (JS)

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1508-1520, December 2004

Background:Epidemiologic studies have suggested a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) at higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grain. Whether this association is due to antioxidant vitamins or some other factors remains unclear.

Objective:We studied the relation between the intake of antioxidant vitamins and CHD risk.

Design:A cohort study pooling 9 prospective studies that included information on intakes of vitamin E, carotenoids, and vitamin C and that met specific criteria was carried out. During a 10-y follow-up, 4647 major incident CHD events occurred in 293 172 subjects who were free of CHD at baseline.

Results:Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins was only weakly related to a reduced CHD risk after adjustment for potential nondietary and dietary confounding factors. Compared with subjects in the lowest dietary intake quintiles for vitamins E and C, those in the highest intake quintiles had relative risks of CHD incidence of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.00; P = 0.17) and 1.23 (1.04, 1.45; P = 0.07), respectively, and the relative risks for subjects in the highest intake quintiles for the various carotenoids varied from 0.90 to 0.99. Subjects with higher supplemental vitamin C intake had a lower CHD incidence. Compared with subjects who did not take supplemental vitamin C, those who took >700 mg supplemental vitamin C/d had a relative risk of CHD incidence of 0.75 (0.60, 0.93; P for trend <> E intake was not significantly related to reduced CHD risk.

Conclusions:The results suggest a reduced incidence of major CHD events at high supplemental vitamin C intakes. The risk reductions at high vitamin E or carotenoid intakes appear small.

08 January 2005

Nanobacteria: History and References

Scientific journalism at it best provides a detailed analysis of a topic that appeals to both a scientist and a layperson. It supports the case with detailed references to the scientific literature and allows the reader to research the issue independently. The best scientific journalism I read in 2004 was
and the best candidate for 2005 is
In both cases, the authors exposed systematic refusal to see the evidence, a common phenomenon in medicine which my favorite cardiologist colleague calls the "cognitive gap." Of course it is sometimes systematic suppression of evidence for personal or corporate gain as in the case of deaths caused by VIOXX or contaminated polio vaccine. In the case of nanobacteria, it appears to be mostly the cognitive gap since there are some scientists that claim nanobacteria do not exist even after reviewing the evidence.

The interesting thing about both nanobacteria and SV40 is that they increase the risk of both heart disease and cancer in over 100 million Americans. Future research may demonstrate that they cause more deaths than the current known single causes of death (cigarettes for number of people killed, alcohol for number of years of life extinguished). Right now they are both in the "cognitive gap" stage where the medical community is like primitive tribesman brought to New York in the early years of America. When standing right beside a large ocean-going ship, they could not see it because it did not fit into their frame of reference.

But I digress. What is interesting about The Calcium Bomb: The Nanobacteria Link to Heart Disease & Cancer? One example is that Dr. E. Olavi Kajander discovered nanobacteria while working in 1985 as a postdoctoral research fellow in the laboratories of Professor Dennis Carson at the Scripps Research Institute near San Diego, California. In 1987, Kajander returned to Finland to establish his own cell culturing lab at the Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department of the University of Kuopio where he demonstrated that nanobacteria were coming from contaminated fetal bovine serum. Since bovine serum is used to make many of our vaccines, almost anyone who has been vaccinated is infected with nanobacteria.

In 1998, Kajander applied for a patent which was subsequently granted by European and American patent authorities and now forms the basis of conventional treatment. Investors may want to take a look at the prospectus of Nanobac Life Sciences, Inc.

United States Patent 5,135,851, Kajander, August 4, 1992
Culture and detection method for sterile-filterable autonomously replicating biological particles

Abstract: Novel autonomously replicating biological particles resembling bacteria and having most surprising properties were discovered from cell culture sera and other biological samples alleged to be sterile according to the current testing methods. These slowly growing agents named Nanobacteria are smaller than any known cell-walled bacteria. They pass through sterile filters, even with pore sizes smaller than their diameter. They cannot be cultured on any standard microbiological media. With the isolation and detection methods provided here they are commonly detectable in animal or human serum. This patent holds for methods of their culture, detection, purification, and elimination and described the necessary reagents for that. Autonomously replicating particles can be cultured in RPMI 1640, or in DMEM, or in other cell culture media. Optimal growth can be obtained by supplementing the culture medium with 10-20% sterile fetal bovine serum. Addition of small amounts of D,L or L selenomethionine together with nucleotide precursors may improve growth. Culture is started by addition of the test sample to the medium in a cell culture vial which is thereafter incubated under standard mammalian cell culture conditions for at least 15 days. Biological samples are preferably sterile-filtered before culture through 0.22 micron filters. The growth of Nanobacteria, if present, can be seen using microscopy at high magnification. The organisms can be made more visible by DNA staining and immunostaining done either separately or simultaneously to a fixed preparation. Nanobacteria can be cultured without mammalian cells, but co-culture together with an adherent cell line like 3T6 is useful because 3T6 cells can take Nanobacteria inside the cells. This aids the staining of the preparations. Intracellular agents are not lost during fixation and staining. Nanobacterial antigens can be prepared by specific culture, harvest, purification and solubilization methods. Immunization of rabbits with the solubilized antigen (treatment with proteinase K and with 1 N HCI) produces highly specific antibodies to Nanobacteria. Gamma-irradiation of culture serum at 2.5-4.0 megarads, preferably in addition with treatment using solid-phase bound antibodies enables preparation of Nanobacteria-free serum. Use of this serum creates sterile culture medium for the culture and detection of Nanobacteria. Double staining combining Hoechst No. 33258 stain and immunofluorescence specifically distinguishes Nanobacteria from other cell culture contaminants.

04 January 2005

Cancer: Targeting a Key Enzyme

Targeting a key enzyme in cell growth: a novel therapy for cancer
J Kulsh
Medical Hypotheses (1997) 49, 297-300

Abstract: The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RR) controls the synthesis of DNA precursors and thus plays a pivotal role in cell growth. Since the free-radical-containing active-site of this enzyme can be disabled by a lone electron, low-level direct electric current should have an inhibitory effect on RR and, thus, on uncontrolled cell proliferation. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the results of several cancer electrotherapy studies reported over the years.

Excerpt: Cancer is uncontrolled cell growth. For a cell to divide, it must replicate its DNA strand. The building blocks of this strand ?? four bases ?? are in short supply in a healthy, resting cell. However, the building blocks of a related molecule RNA are always in great abundance since RNA is needed for many cellular functions. When a cell is ready to divide, an enzyme called ribonucleotide reductase (RR) converts building blocks of RNA into those of DNA. The enzyme RR is, thus, pivotal for cell growth. Not surprisingly, the activity of this enzyme is tightly linked, much more than that of any other enzyme, to neoplastic transformation and progression...

A novel way of arresting the activity of this pivotal enzyme in cell growth, is suggested by the fact that the active-site of RR contains a stable tyrosyl free-radical which is essential for its activity. Such free-radicals can be neutralized/destroyed by free-floating electrons -- easily available in the form of direct electric current. Thus DC electrotherapy should result in inhibition of RR and cessation of malignant cell proliferation. Low-level surface DC electrotherapy would act selectively on cancerous growth since the concentration of the target enzyme RR is exponentially higher in cancerous cells, as compared to healthy quiescent cells...

Free radicals are known to be formed in a biological medium when it is subjected to any voltage in excess of 1.2 volts. Electrochemical products begin to form around 1.5 to 2 volts but these products may not be significant in concentration until the voltage is raised to, say, 3 or 4 V. If the anti-tumor effect of electrotherapy is due to the disabling of the pivotal enzyme RR through free radical interactions, voltage between 1.2 to about 3 V should be most beneficial. Higher voltage, for this mechanism, would be undesirable for two reasons: (i) more and more electrons would engage in electro-chemical processes, leaving less and less electrons free or as free-radicals, and (ii) concentration of toxic electrochemical species would increase steadily. This toxicity may be as harmful as the tumor itself.

03 January 2005

Vitamin C Revisited

I had the privilege of working with Linus Pauling on several occassions in the decades before his death and he introduced me to the experts he knew on Vitamin C. One of the criticisms on use of Vitamin C was that it was simply excreted in the urine, so taking a lot of it was of little benefit.

Pauling was one of the most intelligent and knowledgeable people I have met in my lifetime. Talking with him was like browsing through the Library of Congress as he had a truly encyclopedic mind. The data he provided Watson and Crick was a key element in their discovery of the structure of DNA and he was annoyed that they beat him out of his third Nobel prize.

In any event, Linus always argued that the blood plasma level of Vitamin C was the important factor and it was increased signficantly by taking a lot of Vitamin C. A recent study shows that this increase using oral intake is limited. However, an IV of Vitamin C raises blood plasma levels significantly.

Some preventive medicine experts advocate that you get a signed agreement from any hospital you enter that they will provide intravenous Vitamin C drips, as these will prevent most of the nosocomial infections that kill over 90000 people a year in the United States, not to mention promotion of healing and recovery from whatever ails you.

Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use.
Padayatty SJ, Sun H, Wang Y, Riordan HD, Hewitt SM, Katz A, Wesley RA, Levine M.
Ann Intern Med. 2004 Apr 6;140(7):533-7
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Cancer Institute, and the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1372, USA.

BACKGROUND: Vitamin C at high concentrations is toxic to cancer cells in vitro. Early clinical studies of vitamin C in patients with terminal cancer suggested clinical benefit, but 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials showed none. However, these studies used different routes of administration.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasma vitamin C concentrations vary substantially with the route of administration.
DESIGN: Dose concentration studies and pharmacokinetic modeling.
SETTING: Academic medical center.
PARTICIPANTS: 17 healthy hospitalized volunteers.
MEASUREMENTS: Vitamin C plasma and urine concentrations were measured after administration of oral and intravenous doses at a dose range of 0.015 to 1.25 g, and plasma concentrations were calculated for a dose range of 1 to 100 g.
RESULTS: Peak plasma vitamin C concentrations were higher after administration of intravenous doses than after administration of oral doses (P < style="font-weight: bold;">LIMITATIONS: Patient data are not available to confirm pharmacokinetic modeling at high doses and in patients with cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin C produces plasma concentrations that are tightly controlled. Only intravenous administration of vitamin C produces high plasma and urine concentrations that might have antitumor activity. Because efficacy of vitamin C treatment cannot be judged from clinical trials that use only oral dosing, the role of vitamin C in cancer treatment should be reevaluated.